Hydroxyapatite growth induced by native extracellular matrix deposition on solid surfaces
Pramatarova, L., Pecheva, E., Presker, R., Pham, M.T., Maitz, M.F., Stutzmann, M.
Eur Cell Mater 2005; 9: 9-12
Biological systems have a remarkable capability to produce perfect fine structures such as seashells, pearls, bones, teeth and corals. These structures are composites of interacting inorganic (calcium phosphate or carbonate minerals) and organic counterparts. It is difficult to say with certainty which part has the primary
role. For example, the growth of molluscan shell crystals is thought to be initiated from a solution by the extracellular organic matrix (ECM). According to this theory, the matrix induces nucleation of calcium containing crystals. Recently, an alternative theory has been put forward, stating that a class of granulocytic hemocytes would be directly involved in shell crystal production in oysters. In the work presented here the surface of AISI 316 stainless steel was modified by deposition of
ECM proteins. The ability of the modified substrates to induce nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) from simulated body fluid (SBF) was examined by a kinetic study using two methods: (1) a simple soaking process in SBF and (2) a laser-liquid-solid interaction (LLSI) process which allows interaction between a scanning laser beam and a solid substrate immersed in SBF. The deposited HA layers were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron
microscopy (SEM). It was found that a coating of stainless steel surface with native ECM proteins induced nucleation and growth of HA and facilitated its crystallization. By the process of simple soaking of the samples, irrespective of their horizontal or vertical position in the solution, HA layers were grown due to the reactive ECM-coated stainless steel surface. It was shown that the process occurring in the first stages of the growth was not only a result of the force of gravity. The
application of the LLSI process strongly influenced HA formation on the ECM-modified substrates by promoting and enhancing the HA nucleation and growth through a synergistic effect of a few stimuli, i.e., the modified solid surface, the laser beam and the aqueous solution.