Wang X., Prokert F., Reuther H., Maitz M.F., Zhang F. Chemical composition and biocompatibility of Ti-Ag-O films prepard by ion beam assisted deposition. Surf Coat Techn 185(1): 12-17 (2004).
Titanium oxides are considered as blood compatible surfaces, however, it may be possible to improve the compatibility to the inner lining cells of blood
vessels by addition of Ag which modifies the electronic properties of this oxide. Therefore, TiAgO films with the thickness of 200350 nm have been deposited on Si substrates using an ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) system which has two evaporators to allow a simultaneous deposition of Ti and Ag. The evaporation rates of Ti and Ag, as well as the flow rate of O2 have varied. For physicochemical analysis of the films, glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were performed. The formed phases in TiAgO films consist of TiO2, AgO, Ag2O, Ag, TiAg, AgTi3,
and low valent titanium oxides. The bovine aortic endothelial cell line GM07373 was grown on these surfaces in a medium with 10% fetal bovine serum. The toxicity of the layers was rated by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the cells and are found to be below the detection limit; the cell adhesion was investigated by fluorescent staining of the adhesion molecule vinculin and the cytoskeleton protein filamentary actin; the cell nuclei were counterstained with DAPI, showing good
cell adherence, good compatibility to endothelial cells, and no indication of apoptotic cell death.