Maitz M.F., Pham M.T., Matz W., Reuther H., Steiner G. Promoted calcium-phosphate precipitation from solution on titanium for improved biocompatibility by ion implantation. Surf Coat Techn 158-159C: 151-156 (2002).
Calciumphosphates are the main component of bone and as a coating they promise optimal bone integration of an implant. Titanium as a
leading implant material does not support calciumphosphate precipitation on its surface. The aim is to modify the titanium surface for spontaneous deposition of calciumphosphate out of a solution and to demonstrate its biocompatibility. Non-treated, Na implanted (3.2×1017 Na cm-2), or NaOH (10 mol/l) etched Ti samples were used. Bone forming SAOS-2 cells were seeded out on the surface. After 3, 14 and 28 days samples were investigated for cell count and morphology, biochemical markers and ratio of Ca and P as a hint for the type of calciumphosphate. For a second series calciumphosphate was precipitated by incubation in a simulated body fluid prior to cell culture. On Na implanted Ti without treatments in simulated body fluid, cells grow more oriented in comparison to pure or etched Ti and the cell count was higher, but the cells did not cover the whole surface. Characteristic markers for bone cell metabolism did not differ significantly between the samples. Apatite formation was low but increased in experiments after calciumphosphate precipitation out of solution. The cell morphology improved when the cells were grown on samples after treatment with simulated body fluid. Na implantation can enhance calciumphosphate precipitation on Ti and in this way promotes the growth of bone forming cells.