Maitz M.F., Pham M.T., Matz W., Reuther H., Steiner G., Richter E. Ion beam treatment of titanium surfaces for enhancing deposition of hydroxyapatite from solution. Biomol Engineer 19(2-6): 269-272 (2002).
Surface coating with hydroxyapatite (HA) is a common way to improve the osseointegration of orthopaedic and dental titanium (Ti)-based materials.
The main problems with current techniques are changes in composition during heating and poor adhesion to the surface. An alternative method is deposition of HA onto an activated surface out of a solution. The present work studies the surface treatment involving ion implantation of Na into Ti to induce a modification in chemistry and morphology, showing sodium titanate (Na2TiO3) incorporated within
the surface layer with concentration, depth distribution, and morphology depending on the parameters of the ion implantation. Such ion-implanted Ti surfaces actively induce heterogeneous precipitation of HA from a simulated body fluid containing physiological concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions. This is compared with the activation by NaOH etching. The growth of bone forming cells on the pure Na implanted surface is oriented without an increased bone formation. Cell growth on the
NaOH etched surface is reduced. After deposition of HA on both surfaces cell the growth pattern was improved.